rectal instruments

For surgery

ANATOMY OF RECTUM

The length of the rectum, together with the Perineal region (anal canal), is 15 to 16 cm. The length of the anal canal is 2.5—3 cm, that of the rectal ampula 9 cm, and of the rectosigmoid region 3 cm (Fig. 3). In the pelvis the rectum has bends both in the sagit­tal (Figs 1 […]

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For surgery

BRIEF SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE COLON

The mucous and submucous membranes of the rec­tum and anal canal are provided with a dense network of lymphatics which extensively anastomose with each other. From the anus and the perineal rectum, lymph passes to the inguinal and, partly, to the femoral nodes, and goes upwards through the inguinal fold (Fig. 13). The lymphatic pathways, […]

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Rectum

OPERATIONS FOR FISTULAS-IN-ANO»

By far the most common type of ana! fistula are com­plete fistulas, that is, those with one or several external openings on the skin and one internal opening at one of the crypts of Morgangi. Incomplete internal fistulas, that is, those with a single internal opening into the rectal lumen are met wth only in […]

OPERATION FOR ANTERIOR FISTULAS IN FEMALES AND LATERAL FISTULAS IN MALES AND FEMALES»

In female patients with an anterior high-level fistula it is not allowed to divide the sphincter through the an­terior vaginal wall because of the danger of incontinence of wind and faeces. Therefore we have developed a new ope­ration for these patients. Under local or mixed inhalation anesthesia, the fistulous tract on the perineum is excised […]



OPERATION FOR OPENING THE SIGMOID COLON (Colotomy)»

Under oxygen-ether or azeotropic mixture anesthesia, an incision is made along the midline to open the abdo­minal cavity from the mons pubis to the umbilicus, the sigmoid colon is drawn out and is carefully palpated so as to ascertain the benign nature of the tumour. The sig­moid is then covered with gauze on all sides […]


DIVISION OF SPHINCTER FOR THERAPEUTIC PURPOSES»

In some diseases of the rectum we have to resort to partial division of the anal sphincter in the course of operation, so that its function could be temporarily ar­rested or decreased. It is our practice to perform such sphincterotomy in operations for anorectal abscesses, anal fistulas and anal fissures by incising the sphincter from […]